Sign Up Log In · Feedback

Multisport Rules


  • Play with control and be conscious of your surroundings.
  • Report all injuries which require medical attention and incidents if you desire official Co-Edge investigation.
  • Talk to the other team. Together, Co-Edge members can make a fun and safe playing environment.
  • It is the responsibility of both team captains to submit their scores online the day following game night. Visit and log in from there. Click here to check out a quick video on how to submit scores.
  • First and foremost, the purpose of this league is for FUN! Learn the rules and play by them, but also understand since the sports change each week, it will be harder to remember all the rules. So if you're not certain, just play it over and have fun with it!


General Rules

  1. 1 bench will be laid on its side seat facing out on each end of the court. The bench should be placed up against the wall (There should be no room behind the net)
  2. Each team will have 5 players on the court (including a goalie). There must be at least 2 members of each gender on the court at all times.
  3. Games will begin with the home team kicking the ball off to another member on their team. The Home Team will be determined by flipping a coin or rock-paper-scissors
  4. Games consist of 2-25 minute halves with 5 minute halftime in between. The Co-Edge Game Coordinator will signal time. Teams may play through the halftime if they wish.
  5. Players can make changes at any time. The player coming off the court must be within 3 paces of the bench before a change can be made. Goalies may switch, during a stoppage of play or at halftime.
  6. Each team is responsible for calling their own fouls. Opposing teams may also call fouls on players. This rule is to ensure fair and honest play.
  7. Free Kicks - Players will be granted a free kick when a foul is called. The kick will be made from where the foul took place. Free kicks are indirect (the ball must touch another player before it can be scored.)
  8. Attacking/Defending - Under no circumstances should players SLIDE TACKLE or use BODY CONTACT to advance their position or defend. Sliding will result in an immediate foul. Please play in control.
  9. Handballs occur when the ball strikes a player below the shoulder. Handballs are not called when the player uses their hands to protect their face or groin area.
  10. High-Kicks - Players may not raise their feet above their waist to play the ball. This also includes jumping to play the ball their feet.
  11. The ball may be played off the walls and ceilings. If the ball hits a player on the sidelines, the ball is considered dead and a free kick will be turned over to the opposing team from whoever touched the ball last.

Scoring - A goal occurs when the ball strikes the face of the bench directly. Hitting the side of the bench does not count.

Goalies - Goalies are NOT allowed to play the ball with their hands. This will result in a free kick. The goalie must keep the play going. Goalies may slide to make saves however they may not slide tackle. This means the goalie can slide across the net to make a save, but can not slide towards a player to attack the ball. Goalies may not leave their crease. This space is 5 paces in any direction of the net. The Game Coordinator will determine an appropriate crease based on the lines painted at the venue. Goalies may score as long as they are within their crease. If the goalie attempts to play the ball with their hands and the ball goes in it will still be counted as a goal. In any other case, a handball will be called.


General Rules

  1. Games consist of two 25 minute halves.
  2. A small-size dodgeball will be used as the ball. Each team may field 5 players, including a goalie, there must be 2 female and 2 male players on the court at all times.
  3. Teams must have 4 players to start - one of which must be the opposite gender.
  4. Goalies may not sub-off for an extra attacker.
  5. "Throw-Off" Game starts with a throw off. One team takes possession (determined by rock, paper, scissors before the game). The player must start with the ball with one foot in the centre of the court. All players must be on their own half of the court until play is called in. Once play is called in, the player in the middle has three seconds to pass or shoot. The defensive players may not obstruct the player in the centre of the court. A Throw-Off will happen after every goal. The team that gets scored on takes possession of the throw-off, they may start as soon as all their players are in proper position - they do not need to wait for the opposing team to be in position.
  6. At all times when a play must be "called in". The player with the ball must yell "Game on" loud enough for everyone on the court to hear.
  7. Teams may sub on the fly, as long as the player coming on does not get into the play if the player coming off is involved in the play already.

Goal Area

  1. A goal is scored by throwing the ball into the opposing team's net without stepping inside the goal crease area.
  2. Players from either team may not step inside of the goal areas. A player may pass or shoot the ball in the air as long as the ball leaves the hand before a body part touches the ground in the goal crease.
  3. A goalie may leave their goal area, but may not possess the ball when outside of the goal area. A goalie may deflect a pass, etc. outside of the goal.
  4. Once a shot is taken there are only three possible outcomes:
    1. A goal is scored. 
    2. The goalie makes the save and the ball is deflected out of the crease. This ball is LIVE and can be picked up by any player on the court. 
    3. The ball misses the net and strikes the back wall. The goalie takes possession of the ball, similar to a goal kick in soccer. 

Ball Possession

  1. Once a player gains possession of the ball he/she must play the ball by either shooting or passing it within seven seconds.
  2. A player with possession of the ball can take a maximum of three steps. If one foot is stationary, pivot foot, then this does not count as a step.
  3. Players are permitted to use any body part to play the ball including the knee or higher. Kicking the ball is a foul and the other team will take possession. Goalies may use their feet, but may not kick the ball.
  4. Similar to the rules of Ultimate, a team may keep possession of the ball as long as all passes are completed and no rules are broken. If the offensive team cannot complete the pass then possession switches to the other team, regardless of the reason of the pass not being completed, barring a foul.
  5. If a defensive player knocks down a pass. They may stop the progression of the ball but not take possession by simply stopping the balls movement on the ground and leaving it for a teammate. If this player intercepts the pass they are considered in possession and they have 7 seconds and three steps before making a move.


  1. No body contact is allowed. However, each player should expect some degree of incidental contact.
  2. Setting a screen is permitted. For safety reasons, a player setting a screen must be facing the player that they expect to screen.
  3. Any play that is considered dangerous for the safety of any player will be a foul.
  4. If a player is in possession of the ball, the hand that they are using to hold the ball is considered part of the ball as well. Contact with this hand is not considered a foul.
  5. All fouls result in a free-throw.


  1. Free-throws are awarded on all fouls.
  2. Free-throws are awarded at the spot of the foul.
  3. Defensive players may not stand within 10 ft of the free-throw
  4. Once play is called in on a free-throw - all rules regarding possession apply to the thrower.
  5. Goals may be scored from free-throws.


  1. During playoffs - if two teams are tied at the end of regulation a five-shot shoot-out will take place. Teams must alternate guy/girl and may only use one goaltender for the duration of the shootout. The goaltender may also shoot. All shots will be taken on one net.


General Rules

  1. Games consist of 11 rounds. One round is complete when all the players of a team are eliminated.
  2. Game play consists of 6 players from each team on the court. There must be a minimum of 2 males and 2 females on the court to begin the game.
  3. 3 balls will be lined up on the attacking line of each team. Play begins with a player counting 3-2-1 Dodgeball. Players will run to collect their balls and the game begins.
  4. If a player fully crosses the centre line with a body part and makes contact with the floor on the opposing teams side then they are out. Stepping on the line and reaching over the line is ok. However a full foot on the other side of the court or touching the other side of the court with one�??�?�¢??s hand is elimination.
  5. Players are eliminated when the ball strikes any part of their body (This includes if it just hits your shirt/shorts).
  6. Being hit in the head DOES count as an out, BUT if a player receives multiple complaints and is believed to be head hunting they will be removed from the game. Further action will be determined by Co-Edge Management.
  7. Catching the ball - A player is called out when their throw is caught. The catching team may bring on a member of their team from the bench. Please review the "Catch on Scenarios" to determine what gender may come on to the court when a catch occurs.
  8. When the ball hits the wall, ceiling or floor it is considered "dead". Players can not be eliminated by "dead" balls.
  9. Players can not hold more than one ball at a time. If you hold or touch a second ball with you free hand you are eliminated.
  10. Players are not allowed suicide eliminations (jumping over the middle line to make an elimination.)
  11. Blocking - Players may block throws using the ball in their hand, however if you deflect a ball off your self or another player elimination occurs. Similarly if a ball is deflected and caught this is still considered elimination.
  12. If 2 players are hit by the same ball/throw the second player to be hit will be eliminated
  13. If a ball is in on your side of the court it must be thrown within ten seconds. Please keep the game moving!

Catch on Scenerios:

  • 1 player remains on the court: Bring on a player of the opposite sex
  • 2 players remain on the court (1 member of each sex): Bring on a player of either sex
  • 2 players remain on the court (same sex): Bring on a player of the opposite sex
  • 3 players remain on the court (2 same sex, 1 opposite sex): Bring on a player of the opposite sex (so that there are 2 of each)
  • 3 players remain on the court (all same sex): Bring on a player of the opposite sex
  • 4 players remain, 3 same sex, 1 opposite sex (ex. 3 males, 1 female): Bring on a member of the opposite sex (female)
  • Once at least 2 members of each sex are on the court, teams can bring on either sex when a ball is caught


  1. Define the boundaries. Using lines on the gym floor, define two sides to the playing field with a jail along the back wall of either side. The space must be deep enough for players to stand in. Basketball boundary lines are usually used.
  2. Game play consists of 6 players from each team on the court. There must be a minimum of 2 males and 2 females on the court to begin the game.
  3. 6 balls are used in each game. 3 balls are line up on the attack line of each team. Play begins with a player counting 3-2-1 Dodgeball. Players will run to collect their balls and the game begins
  4. When a player is hit in King's Court they are sent to the other teams jail. The player must stay in jail until they are allowed back in the game. Players are hit when the ball strikes any part of the body. Players should be careful to not aim towards the head. The ball must directly hit the body, not bounce off the wall or floor.
  5. If a players catches a ball thrown at them, they are safe and the players that threw the ball is out and must go to jail. A dodgeball can also be used as a shield to protect the player from incoming balls.
  6. In order to get out of jail, you must hit opposing players from jail. Teams may throw the dodgeballs to their teammates in jail.
  7. The game ends when one team has put the whole other team into jail.
  8. Players cannot hold more than one ball at a time.
  9. Players are not allowed suicide eliminations (jumping over the middle line to make an elimination).


  1. Games consist of 2-25 minute halves with 5 minute half time in between. The Co-Edge Game Coordinator will signal time. Teams may play through the half time if they wish.
  2. Each team will have 5 players on the court. There must be at least 2 members of each gender on the court at all times.
  3. Games will begin with a jump ball.
  4. Players may only sub off after a basket, though play does not stop.
  5. Each basket counts as 1 point no matter where the shot is taken. 3 pointers are not valid in this game. After a basket is scored the defending team will pass the ball in from behind their base line.
  6. Out of bounds occurs when the ball crosses the sidelines. The ball is turned over by the last team to touch the ball. A pass in will be made to restart play. 2 large steps (6 feet) must be left between the offensive and defensive players on a pass in.
  7. When the ball is tied-up between two players a "tie-up" is called and the ball is turned over to the defending team. The ball will be "checked-in" on the top of the defending teams key.
  8. The 3 Second Rule - Once the ball crosses the centre line offensive players are not allowed to be in the defenders key for longer than 3 seconds. Defensive players must count "Mississippis" aloud. If a player violates this rule twice on the same possession then the ball will be turned over to the defending team.
  9. A foul will result in a turn over. The ball will be checked in at the point of the foul. If a defensive foul occurs in the key the offensive team will receive one free throw.
  10. Free throws must be taken from the free throw line as indicated by the painted lines of the gym. Teams will line up quickly in alternating positions on the outside of the key. The player has 20 seconds to complete the free throw.
  11. Dunking = Dunking is allowed. However, since Co-Edge is responsible for the condition of the gym and any damage to it by HANGING FROM THE RIM IS NOT TOLERABLE. Players will receive one warning before being asked to sit the rest of the game. If a player must be reminded several times Co-Edge Management will consider further action.

FOULS - Standard basketball fouls will apply (Body contact, traveling, double dribble, reaching in, and waiving arms to purposely obstruct a players line of sight). Players must try to keep at least one foot between themselves and other players. Players may not under any circumstances use their body to advance their position whether on offense or defense. This will result in a foul.


General Rules

  1. The Net should be set approximately 7 feet high
  2. Teams may rock, paper, scissors or use any other suitable means to determine who gets first serve. First service alternates between teams for the start of each game.
  3. A player can set a serve, but cannot block a serve. The ball must come into play.
  4. A player cannot make contact with the net at any time. If they do, a foul will be called and the opposing team will be awarded a point.
  5. Players are to call balls in or out of bounds. If there is a dispute, resume play by re-serving the ball with no point awarded
  6. A player may pass under the net as long as it does not interfere with the play
  7. Breaching the plain - Players may only reach beyond the net to block the 3rd hit by the other team. Breaching the plain after the 1st or 2nd hit is a foul.
  8. Spiking - Please use common courtesy when hitting the ball hard. If it is obvious that the other team is not able to control the ball on hard hits do not spike. This is for the safety of players many of whom may not have played volleyball before.
  9. One server may only serve the ball 5 times consecutively.
  10. If the ball hits the ceilings or walls it is considered dead.



  • Games consist of two 25 minute halves, with a 5 minute half time.


  • If the game is tied after regulation, no extra time is played.
  • There are two methods of scoring points: a touchdown or converting a touchdown
  • If the defensive team intercepts the convert and runs the ball back to the other end-zone, the team will score as many points as the opposing team was attempting (1point). If the defensive team picks off the convert attempt and is flagged before reaching the end-zone, play is dead and the kick off process would follow.
  • After the convert play has been concluded, the scoring team will kick-off to the non-scoring team.


  • When the halftime whistle blows or to finish the game, finish out the play
  • If the team winning the coin toss took first choice to start the game, the loser of the coin toss has first choice to start the second half.


  • The offensive team consists of a quarterback and 4 receivers.
  • The defensive team consists of 5 defenders.
  • The offence has 4 "downs" or scrimmage plays in which to score a touchdown. If a touchdown is not scored in the 4 plays, the ball is turned over to the defence, the defence then becomes the offence.
  • On each down, the ball should be put in play at the center point on whichever yard line the teams are positioned.
  • The offensive team has the choice to put the ball into play by either having the quarterback "snap" the ball to him/herself or using an eligible receiver to snap the ball to the quarterback (direct or shotgun)
  • The offence must put the ball into play within 30 SECONDS of starting their huddle. Huddles need to be kept short to keep the play moving; teams may politely intervene if their opponent is not abiding by this rule. If this is mentioned by your opponent, make an effort to speed up.


  • The quarterback/offence has only 10 "STEAMBOATS" to make a play (this should equal 10 seconds). If the quarterback has not been rushed (so they can't run) then they must have made a pass within 10 steamboats.
  • Any defensive player can call steamboats, preferably a player on the sideline.
  • If a player on the sideline is calling steamboats, they must move with the line of scrimmage and must count loud enough for all players on the field to hear.
  • For the defensive team to take advantage of this rule, a player must be counting the 10 steamboats out loud for all to hear. If the defence forgets or starts counting late, the offence has until the defence gets to 10 by counting the steamboats properly.
  • At 10 steamboats if a pass has not been thrown by the quarterback, the play is dead and the next down is started. This rule has been instituted to keep the game moving.
  • The defence must count 5 steamboats before they can rush across the line of scrimmage into the offensive backfield (any defensive player can call the steamboats but please call the steamboats loud enough for everyone to hear).
  • The offence is not allowed to run the ball across the line of scrimmage until a defensive player has counted 5 steamboats and has crossed the line of scrimmage (even if crossing unintentionally while covering a receiver).
  • If the defence rushes the quarterback after 5 steamboats then the steamboat count no longer applies and the play will continue until the offence is stopped.


  • All players on the field are eligible to catch a pass.
  • If a legal forward pass goes incomplete, the next play will start at the original line of scrimmage.
  • If the defence catches (intercepts) a pass, they become the offence after that play has ended.
  • A forward pass may not be thrown if the ball has been advanced across the line of scrimmage.
  • Only one forward pass may be thrown on each play. The pass can be underhand or traditionally thrown as long as it goes forward over the line of scrimmage.
  • On any play, any number of Ã???Ã??Ã?¢??lateralsÃ???Ã??Ã?¢?? (directly sideways or backwards passes) may be thrown from any point on the field but eventually the ball must be passed over the line of scrimmage. If the defensive team does not cross the line of scrimmage the ball must be thrown - offensive teams can not run the ball if the defensive team has not crossed the line of scrimmage.


  • "Pick Plays" are illegal by the offensive team. A pick play is when one receiver/offensive player runs interference on the defensive player that is covering another receiver.
  • For a play to be considered a pick an imminent collision or actual physical contact must be made.
  • A good rule of thumb is that when two offensive players cross within 1 yard of each other they are attempting a pick play if a defender is affected by their actions.
  • If the ball has been advanced across the line of scrimmage, a pass in a forward direction is illegal. The play is dead and the ball should be scrimmaged from where the forward pass originated.
  • For a pass to be complete, the receiving player must have control of the ball and have at least one foot in bounds before any other part of his/her body lands out of bounds.
  • Defensive players should avoid screening (waving hands in front of a receiver's face) or contacting a receiver.
  • If the defence intercepts a pass in their own end zone and subsequently fails to advance the ball out of the end zone, they will scrimmage the ball (1st down) on their own 10 yard line (a modified Touchback).


There are two types of kicks:

  1. Kick-off: to start a half, or after a touchdown.
  2. Punts: a play from scrimmage - ONLY on the 4th down.
  • If the ball goes out of bounds through the receiving teaM's end-zone (side or end), the receiving team shall scrimmage the ball (1st down) at their 10 yard line. There is no point awarded to the kicking team.
  • Return kicks by the defence or receiving team are not allowed.
  • On all kicks and punts, the players of the kicking team should be even with, or behind the kicker when the ball is kicked.


  • A kick-off will take place from the kicking team's 10-yard line.
  • If the ball goes out of bounds prior to reaching the receiving team's end-zone, whether or not it lands inbounds before going out, the receiving team will have the choice of either the kick-off being repeated, OR taking the ball where it went out of bounds, plus 5 yards.
  • Once a ball has been kicked, the kicking team is not allowed to recover the ball; it has been given away to the defending/receiving team.
  • If the kick-off has not been touched by the receiving team, the kicking team must stay 5 yards away from the receiving team until someone touches it.


  • If a player receiving a kick fails to initially control the ball (but has touched it) and it hits the ground, that player may still attempt to control and advance the ball. In this situation the kicking team does not have to give the player a 5-yard buffer (the ball has been touched), but the kicking team cannot recover the ball.
  • If a player fails to initially control the ball, his/her team mates cannot recover the ball.


  • A punt is a kick that occurs during a scrimmage play.
  • A team can only punt on the 4th down and they must inform the defending team if they plan to do so. (There are NO fake punts).
  • Defensive teams cannot block a punt.
  • The punting team can "down" a punt. If the receiving team chooses not to play a ball that is on the ground or if the punting team gets to a ball on the ground first, then the punting team can touch the ball and the receiving team will begin its series of downs from where the ball is touched.
  • If the ball goes out of bounds prior to reaching the receiving team's end-zone, regardless of whether it first lands inbounds, the receiving team will scrimmage the ball (1st down) from the yard line where the ball went out of bounds.


  • The same rules apply as above for "Loose Balls on Kick-off", with one exception: there is no 5-yard buffer on punts as there is with kick-offs.


  • On a non-kick scrimmage play, if the ball touches the ground, it is immediately dead. The ball is retained by the team who was last in possession of the ball (exception: the offence gambles on 4th down and fails to score a touchdown on the play Ã???Ã??Ã?¢?? the ball is turned over on downs). The next play will start at the yard line where the player fumbled the ball.


  • This is a non-contact league; all physical blocking is illegal.
  • A player is entitled to his/her stationary position or immediate path on the field, and physical contact is to be avoided.
  • On a kick off, the offensive players without the ball must not block for the runner - they must either stand still (without moving their arms or legs) or get behind the runner for a lateral pass.


  • Blocking and physical contact (includes pushing out of bounds) MUST be avoided at all times.
  • Picks: all pick plays (unintentional included) are to be avoided, and should be penalized when identified.
  • Picks are clearly defined in the "Passing" section of the rules. Note: not all crossing patterns are picks.
  • Offensive players should not cross the line of scrimmage before their quarterback puts the ball into play.
  • A ball carrier cannot guard his/her flag with his/her hands. Furthermore, they cannot jump in any fashion to avoid having their flag pulled. Jumping consists of one or both feet leaving the ground.
  • Defenders cannot screen or touch a receiver while the receiver is attempting to catch the ball (a defender legitimately attempting to intercept the ball may end up screening the intended receiver - this is OK if contact was minor and incidental.)
  • Holding of any kind is illegal.
  • A defender is not allowed to prematurely take the flags off of an offensive player's belt.
  • A defensive player may not slow an opponent by grabbing their clothes or body.
  • Offensive charging is a foul: a ball carrier cannot aggressively run through the outstretched arms of a stationary defender - they should make an attempt to go around the defender and avoid contact.
  • In the case of a perceived foul, if the teams cannot agree that a foul occurred, there is only one option - Replay the down from the original line of scrimmage.
  • In the case of a perceived foul, if the teams do agree that a foul occurred, there are 4 options. The team that was fouled against gets to choose the option that is most beneficial to them - Replay the down from the original line of scrimmage
  • Play the next down from the spot where the foul occurred (e.g. a team intercepts a ball and during the runback an illegal block occurs Ã???Ã??Ã?¢?? in this case, the intercepting team takes over on offence at the point of the foul).
  • Decline the penalty but talk to the other team (e.g. if a player scores a touchdown after being fouled, the scoring play counts. Then talk to the other Captain or the fouling player after the play to help avoid further incidents).
  • Pass Interference: if both the offence and defence agree that the defender committed pass interference, then the offence can choose to either replay the down from the original line of scrimmage or the next play will start from the point of the foul.


  1. Co-Edge will provide all equipment needed.
  2. All areas (wall, ceiling) are 'live'. The exception is team benches. There are no icings or off-sides.
  3. A player from each team will face-off in the center of the gym and tap their sticks together 3 times before going for the ball.
  4. Players may make substitutions "on-the-fly" as long as the player leaving the court is off before the new player enters the playing area.
  5. Players may not stand within a goalies crease. Goalies may NOT contact a player who is standing in the crease. Once a goalie has covered the ball, the play is dead. Once a goalie gains possession, they can pass the ball immediately or pick up the ball and drop it over the net to their own player. This player is given 3 seconds to put the ball in play.
  6. Goals cannot be scored by kicking the ball in the net.
  7. Players must play with respect and a "fun-first" attitude.
  8. Moving picks are not allowed.
  9. High sticking occurs when the stick of a player comes above waist level. This includes knocking down the ball, calling for a pass or during a shot.
  10. You cannot pass the ball to your teammate using your hands. A caught ball must be dropped directly to the ground.
  11. Ball in the corner - when two players are chasing the ball into the corner, the leading player must be given possession and be given 3 seconds to gain control. This is done to prevent and injuries or trips that may occur in the corner.
  12. Body contact is not allowed at any time during play.



  1. A kickball diamond will be created with a square of about 20 paces each side with a pitching strip in the middle of the diamond. n
  2. The defensive team will field the following positions: catcher, 1st basemen, 2nd basemen, 3rd basemen, 3 outfieldersn
  3. Teams will play 5 innings. If 5 innings are not completed by 45 minutes of play, the score after the last completed inning will be used. If time allows, more innings may be played but the score of the last full inning played will be used. n
  4. Captains will rock, paper, scissors to decide who kicks first.
  5. A cap of 12 runs/team/inning will be used to keep play moving swiftly.


  1. Teams will pitch to their own kickers.
  2. The ball must be rolled on the ground when crossing homeplate. The pitcher has to stay behind the pitching strip until the ball is kicked.


  1. The ball must be kicked with the foot or leg. There is no bunting - the leg must fully extend when kicking. The must be made behing or while stepping on homeplate.
  2. Each kicker will be given 3 pitches to make a kick. If the kicker misses or fouls on all 3 pitches, the kicker is out.


  1. A runner may only run when a ball is kicked. There is no stealing or leading off in kickball.
  2. Runners must tag up if a fly ball is directly caught.
  3. Runners may not slide into base.
  4. If the ball is overthrown when trying to hig the runner out, the runner may advance only ONE base.

Scoring: A run is scored every time a player rounds all of the bases and crosses home plate.


A kicker is out if:

  1. They kick the ball and it is caught in the air (even in foul territory)
  2. 3 strikes and/or fouls
  3. They bunt the ball (don't take a full swing of the leg)

A runner is out if:

  1. They are hit by a kicked ball while off base
  2. A fielder tags them with the ball while they are off base
  3. A fielder throws and hits them below the shoulders with the ball (runners hit in the head with the ball are not out unless they were ducking or dodging the ball)
  4. They are tagged by a fielder with the ball before they reach the base they are forced to run to or the fielder touches the base with the ball before the runner in a forced play
  5. They leave the base before the ball is kicked
  6. They fail to tag up when a fly ball is kicked and the ball beats them to the base they were on
  7. The run past the runner in front of them
  8. They run into a fielder who is making a play for the ball

Send Your Feedback